Automatic Face Recognition Technology - seminar Paper

Automatic Face Recognition Technology
As the necessity for higher levels of security rises, technology is bound to swell to fulfill these needs. Any new creation, enterprise, or development should be uncomplicated and acceptable for end users in order to spread worldwide. This strong demand for user-friendly systems which can secure our assets and protect our privacy without losing our identity in a sea of numbers, grabbed the attention and studies of scientists toward what’s called biometrics.
Biometrics is the emerging area of bioengineering; it is the automated method of recognizing person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. There exist several biometric systems such as signature, finger prints, voice, iris, retina, hand geometry, ear geometry, and face.  Among these systems, facial recognition appears to be one of the most universal, collectable, and accessible systems.
Biometric face recognition, otherwise known as Automatic Face Recognition (AFR), is a particularly attractive biometric approach, since it focuses on the same identifier that humans use primarily to distinguish one person from another: their “faces”. One of its main goals is the understanding of the complex human visual system and the knowledge of how humans represent faces in order to discriminate different identities with high accuracy. Automated face recognition is a relatively new concept. Developed in the 1960s, the first semi-automated system for face recognition required the administrator to locate features ( such as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth) on the photographs before it calculated distances and ratios to a common reference point, which were then compared to reference data. In the 1970s, Goldstein, Harmon, and Lesk used 21 specific subjective markers such as hair color and lip thickness to automate the recognition. The problem with both of these early solutions was that the measurements and locations were manually computed. In 1988, Kirby and Sirovich applied principle component analysis, a standard linear algebra technique, to the face recognition problem. This was considered somewhat of a milestone as it showed that less than one hundred values were required to accurately code a suitably aligned and normalized face image. In 1991, Turk and Pentland discovered that while using the eigen faces techniques, the residual error could be used to detect faces in images; a discovery that enabled reliable real-time automated face recognition systems. Although the approach was somewhat constrained by the environmental factors, the nonetheless created significant interest in furthering development of automated face recognition technologies. The technology first captured the public’s attention from the media reaction to a trial implementation at the January 2001 Super Bowl, which captured surveillance images and compared them to a database of digital mugshots. Today, face recognition technology is being used to combat passport fraud, support law enforcement, identify missing children, and minimize benefit/identity fraud

What Is Face Recognition Technology?
 A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.
It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as finger print or eye iris recognition systems Some facial recognition algorithms identify facial features by extracting landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and jaw. These features are then used to search for other images with matching features. Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress the face data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face detection. A probe image is then compared with the face data. One of the earliest successful systems is based on template matching techniques applied to a set of salient facial features, providing a sort of compressed face representation.
Recognition algorithms can be divided into two main approaches, geometric, which looks at distinguishing features, or photometric, which is a statistical approach that distills an image into values and compares the values with templates to eliminate variances. A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve improved accuracies, is three-dimensional face recognition. This technique uses 3D sensors to capture information about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify distinctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye sockets, nose, and chin.
One advantage of 3D facial recognition is that it is not affected by changes in lighting like other techniques. It can also identify a face from a range of viewing angles, including a profile view. Three-dimensional data points from a face vastly improve the precision of facial recognition. 3D research is enhanced by the development of sophisticated sensors that do a better job of capturing 3D face imagery. The sensors work by projecting structured light onto the face. Up to a dozen or more of these image sensors can be placed on the same CMOS chip -- each sensor captures a different part of the spectrum.

What Is Biometrics?  
Biometrics (or biometric authentication) refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits. Biometrics is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological versus behavioral characteristics.physiological biometric would identify by one's voice, DNA, hand print or behavior. Behavioral biometrics are related to the behavior of a person, including but not limited to: typing rhythm, gait,and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics to describe the latter class of biometrics.
More traditional means of access control include token-based identification systems, such as a driver's license or passport, and knowledge-based identification systems, such as a password or personal identification number. Since biometric identifiers are unique to individuals, they are more reliable in verifying identity than token and knowledge-based methods; however, the collection of biometric identifiers raises privacy concerns about the ultimate use of this information. Many different aspects of human physiology, chemistry or behavior can be used for biometric authentication. The selection of a particular biometric for use in a specific application involves a weighting of several factors.identified seven such factors to be used when assessing the suitability of any trait for use in biometric authentication. Universality means that every person using a system should possess the trait. Uniqueness means the trait should be sufficiently different for individuals in the relevant population such that they can be distinguished from one another. Permanence relates to the manner in which a trait varies over time. More specifically, a trait with 'good' permanence will be reasonably invariant over time with respect to the specific matching algorithm.Measurability (collectability) relates to the ease of acquisition or measurement of the trait. In addition, acquired data should be in a form that permits subsequent processing and extraction of the relevant feature sets. Performance relates to the accuracy, speed, and robustness of technology used. Acceptability relates to how well individuals in the relevant population accept the technology such that they are willing to have their biometric trait captured and assessed. Circumvention relates to the ease with which a trait might be imitated using an artifact or substitute.

Classifications  of Biometrics
Face Recognition Technology

Advantages :

  • No More Time Fraud - One of the big benefits of using face biometric systems in your company is that you won’t have to worry about time fraud. It will be impossible for buddy punching to occur, since everyone has to have go thru face scanning biometrics devices to clock in.
  •  Better Security - You’ll also enjoy better security with a facial biometrics system. Not only can you track employees thru biometrics time attendance tracking, but any visitors can be added to the system and tracked throughout the area too. Anyone that is not in the system will not be given access.
  • Automated System - Many companies like the fact that biometric imaging systems are automated. You won’t have to worry about having someone there to monitor the system 24 hours a day.
  •  Easy Integration - Integrated Biometric facial systems are also easy to program into your companies computer system. Usually they will work with existing software that you have in place.
  •  High Success Rate - Facial biometrics technology today has a high success rate, especially with the emergence of 3d face recognition technologies. It is extremely difficult to fool the system, so you can feel secure knowing that your biometrics computer security system will be successful at tracking time and attendance while providing better security.


  • It is limited because optimal performance requires high degree of correlation between pixel intensities of training set and set images.(this limitation has been addressed by using extensive preprocessing to normalize the images).
  • This algorithm creates problems for faces scaled larger or smaller than the original dataset.
  • Raw gray scale images are sensitive to noise and lighting conditions.

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