Hands Free Driving Car-Seminar Paper

hands free driving car


          This seminar paper is based upon the project work being carried out by the collaboration of Delphi-Delco Electronics (DDE) and General Motors Corporation. It was named the Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) field operation program to build the tomorrow’s car. It used latest technologies of radar sensing to prevent collision. Video imaging to track its path, and uses DGPS for locating the position of the vehicle on the road. It completely utilized the latest technologies in Robotics as obstacle sensing, tracking and identification.


 All of us would like to drive our car with a mobile held in one hand, talking to the other person. But we should be careful; we don’t know when the car just before us applies the break and everything is gone.  A serious problem encountered in most of the cities, National Highways, where any mistake means no ‘turning back’! There comes the tomorrows technology; Hand free driven car. Utilizing the modern technological approach in Robotics.

 What is the need for safety precaution?

All around the world almost 45% of the accidents occur by mistakes of the driver. In some cases the driver is engaged in some other affair than driving. In USA the highways are so crowded that in some situations mistake on the part of one person on the road can lead to serious accidents. Most of these accidents are fatal. One such accident took place in the year 1997, on a foggy morning the on a heavily traffic highway a series of collisions took place in which 5 lost their life and more than 40 injured.  The victims of such accidents are either severely injured, some even risk their life by their careless driving. This was the main reason behind this project work put forward by the Delphi-Delco electronic systems and General Motors Corporation. It was called the Automotive Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) field operation program.


          It is the Automotive Collision Avoidance System (ACAS). The ACAS/FOT Program has assembled a highly focused technical activity with the goal of developing a comprehensive FCW system that is seamlessly integrated into the vehicle infrastructure.. The FCW system incorporates the combined ACC & rear-ends CW functionality. The ACC feature will only be operational when engaged by the driver. On the other hand, the FCW feature will provide full-time operating functionality whenever the host vehicle is in use (above a certain min speed). This feature is effective in detecting, assessing, and alerting the driver of potential hazard conditions associated with rear-end crash events in the forward region of the host vehicle. This is accomplished by implementing an expandable system architecture that uses a combination of: (a) a long range forward radar-based sensor that is capable of detecting and tracking vehicular traffic, and (b) a forward vision-based sensor which detects and tracks lanes. The proposed program effort is focused on providing warnings to the driver, rather than taking active control of the vehicle.
Due to the complexity and breadth of the system goals, the on-going design process has heavily relied on using the established principles of system engineering as a framework to guide this highly focused deployment design effort. As such, the technical activities of the program can be grouped into four main activities within two phases. Phase I started immediately after program inception in, June 1999, and lasted approximately 27 months. Phase II started immediately after the end of Phase I. The objective was that the two program phases will be continuous with minimal disruption of program flow and continuity between them. Consequently, activities that enable the continuous workflow into Phase II will be initiated during Phase I. The program phases are summarized as:
Phase I
Development - The program initially focused on a variety of activities associated with the enhancement, improvement, and maturation processes applied to existing FCW technologies/components that were developed during the ACAS Program, while accelerating the development of other key subsystems,
Integration - The refined FCW portfolio of technologies/components was upwardly integrated into the vehicle platform infrastructure to form a comprehensive rear-end collision warning system,
Phase II
Deployment Fleet - The validated design was used to build a deployment fleet of ten vehicles equipped with the system; and
Field Operational Test - The culmination of this program activity will be the design and implementation of the FOT plan. The deployment vehicle fleet will be used to collect valuable market research data in order to assess/validate the technology, product maturity, and general public perception.
           The FOT is the natural next step of the technology development cycle that was initiated with the Automotive Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) Development Program. This program was sponsored through the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) and administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) between January 1995 and October 1997. Delphi-Delco Electronics Systems (DDE) and General Motors (GM) were major participants of the eight-member ACAS Consortium. Additionally, DDE led the ACAS Consortium. The primary objective of the ACAS Program was to accelerate the commercial availability of key collision warning countermeasure technologies, through either improved manufacturing processes or accelerated technology development activities. The next logical technical progression of the product development cycle was the upward integration of these ACAS-developed essential building blocks to form a complete seamless vehicle system that will be evaluated through a field operational test program. It is apparent that the introduction of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems is imminent. Therefore, posing the notion of a field operational test of the collision warning technology at this time is apropos. An extensive, comprehensive collision warning FOT has never been undertaken in the United States (or anywhere else for that matter). As such, very few studies exist which adequately understand the relationship between system performance capability, user acceptance, and safety benefits based on involvement by the general driving public. This test program provides an ideal opportunity for the Government, industry, and ITS community to gain a more thorough understanding of the requirements, functions and societal impact of this technology. Additionally, any potential adverse operational and safety-related issues could be identified, analyzed, and addressed while the technology is still in the early stages of product development. This program has the opportunity to make a positive contribution in the development of this technology.
        In support of achieving a successful field operational test, the ACAS/FOT Program had assembled a highly focused technical activity with the goal of developing a comprehensive FCW system that was seamlessly integrated into the vehicle infrastructure. The performance of the cohesive collision warning vehicle package will be of sufficient fidelity, robustness, and maturity so that a meaningful field operational test program can be executed. The FCW system will incorporate the combined ACC & rear-end CW functionality. The ACC feature will only be operational when engaged by the driver. On the other hand, the FCW feature will provide full-time operating functionality whenever the host vehicle is in use (above a certain minimum speed). This feature will be effective in detecting, assessing, and alerting the driver of potential hazard conditions associated with rear-end crash events in the forward region of the host vehicle.
     It is the Adaptive Cruise Control system.  In the current ACAS FOT program, four complementary host and road state estimation approaches are being developed. The complementary approaches are as follows:
 (a) vision based road prediction
(b) GPS based road prediction
(c) radar based scene tracking
(d) yaw rate based road and host state estimation
These four roads and host state estimation approaches are being correlated and fused by the Data Fusion system and provided parametrically to the Tracking and Identification Task. The fused road and host state information provides an improved estimate of the roadway shape/geometry in the region ahead of the Host vehicle, and an improved estimate of the Host vehicle’s lateral position and heading within its own lane. This information is being incorporated into the Tracking and Identification functions to provide more robust roadside object discrimination and improved performance at long range, during lane change maneuvers, and during road transitions. In addition, a new radar-based roadside object discrimination algorithm is also being developed to cluster and group roadside stationary objects, and the first generation truck discrimination algorithms developed during the previous ACAS program are being enhanced. Furthermore, a new yaw rate based host lane change detection algorithm is also being developed.


         The most important part of the ACC system is the Digitized GPS .Global Positioning Satellite Systems (GPS) are navigation tools which allow users to determine their location anywhere in the world at any time of the day. GPS systems use a network of 24 satellites to establish the position of individual users. Originally developed by the military, GPS is now widely utilized by commercial users and private citizens. GPS was originally designed to aid in navigation across large spaces or through unfamiliar territory. As a tool for law enforcement, GPS can assist agencies by increasing officer safety and efficiency.
         The United States Coast Guard defines GPS as "a satellite-based radio-navigation system." In lay person terms, GPS operates when a network of satellites "read" the signal sent by a user’s unit (which emits a radio signal). A GPS unit receives data transmitted from satellites— at least three satellite data inputs are necessary for accurate measurements.
          The unit then interprets the data providing information on longitude, latitude, and altitude. GPS satellites also transmit time to the hundredth of a second as coordinated with the atomic clock. With these parameters of data and constant reception of GPS signals, the GPS unit can also provide information on velocity, bearing, direction, and track of movement.
        GPS receivers can be integrated with other systems, such as a transponder or transmitter. The transmitter takes information from the GPS receiver and transmits it to a defined station, such as a police dispatcher. The dispatcher must have the system to both receive the transmission in "real time" along with the GPS data. To be truly useful, this information must be integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) which has a map of the community and translates the longitude and latitude into addresses.

Brake Control System

       A new Delphi Brake Control System will replace the OEM brake components on the Prototype and FOT deployment vehicles. The brake control system includes an anti-lock brake system (ABS), vehicle stability enhancement, and traction control features. For this program, the brake system will be enhanced to respond to ACC braking commands while maintaining the braking features and functions that were in the original brake system. Delphi’s common best engineering practices will be used to perform safety analysis and vehicle level verification of the brake system to ensure production-level confidence in the brake system.
Over the past two years, the DBC 7.2 brake control system has undergone significant testing for production programs. During the first year of the ACAS/FOT program, the brake system was integrated on a chassis mule and one of the Engineering Development Vehicles. Calibration and tuning of the brake system has started.

Throttle Control System

       The throttle control system maintains the vehicle speed in response to the speed set by the driver or in response to the speed requested by the ACC function. The Delphi stepper motor cruise control (SMCC), standard in the Buick LeSabre, will be modified to perform the required functions. The required modifications have been used successfully in other projects. During the first year, interface requirements were defined and throttle control system modifications were designed for the prototype vehicle.
      The information from the ACC controller and the ACC radar sub-system is fed to the processor through the CAN bus which has the data rate of 500kbps. The ACC controller controls the throttle and brake actuators to have effective brake and throttle control.
 The primary ACC Subsystem display will be in a head-up display. The primary ACC display will include the following information:
  1. ACC On/Off
  2. Set Speed
  3. Current Speed
  4. Tracking/Not Tracking a Lead Vehicle
  5. ACC Operational/Failed
                    The vehicle will provide a forward collision warning capability that will provide alerts and advisory displays to assist drivers in avoiding or reducing the severity of crashes involving the equipped vehicle striking the rear-end of another motor vehicle. For the purposes of the FOT, the FCW will have enabled and disabled modes. The FCW will be enabled and disabled when conditions specified by the ACAS/FOT engineers are met using the same mechanism that enables and disables the adaptive capability of the cruise control. The driver will not be able to disable the FCW, but the driver will be provided with a control to adjust the sensitivity (alert range) of the FCW function. The sensitivity adjustment will not permit the FCW function to be disabled by the vehicle operator.

Ø  Conveniently manages vehicle speed and headway gap
Ø  Complements vehicle styling
Ø  Makes cruise control more useable in most traffic
    conditions resulting in a more relaxed driving experience
Ø  Operates under wide range of environmental conditions
    (dirt, ice, day, night, rain, or fog)
Ø  Low false alarm rate

Ø  Radar-based sensing for optimal performance
Ø  Sensor hidden behind front grille or fascia
Ø  Best available detection and tracking performance
Ø  Manages vehicle speed and headway gap using throttle
    control and limited braking
Ø  Automatically notifies driver of a blocked sensor via
    displayed message
Ø  Excellent following distance and speed control


          Robotics is the part of electronics engineering, which exploits each aspect of electronics and mechanical engineering. The developments of robotics have lead to the ACAS program. On the completion of this program vehicles will change the phase of driving; a handfree driving.

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